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And US official "Zig" Brzezinski who served in the LBJ & Carter administrations and advised Obsma, wrote a book in 1997, The Grand Chessboard, which shows very clearly that Mackinder's ideas were alive and well in shaping US policy.

In 2018, Robert Kagan wrote, The Jungle Grows Back, America and Our Imperiled World showing the underlying philosophy behind Mackinder's world view remains alive and well. Kagan is a neoconservative advocate of "liberal" interventionism, founder of neocon, Project for the New American Century, and he is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. He was a registered Republican till Trump was nominated. Then Kagan left the Republican party and endorsed Hillary Clinton. AND Kagan is the husband of Victoria Nuland, a key figure in the US policy in Ukraine.

Mackinder's ideas are not a thing of the past. They are alive and well. The pattern shows the UK and US have hated Russia for over 150 years. They both advocated for interventionist policies (war mongering) and Rules Based Order where the US makes the rules.

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